PLANTING TIPS

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Growing Tips

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Site and Soil

Blueberries require full sun and a well-drained soil. They prefer a gravelly or sandy soil and will not thrive in heavy soils, particularly if they are damp. Their roots are very fine and cannot penetrate clays easily. Damp soils are one of the primary reasons for failure with blueberries, so although watering is important after transplanting, soggy ground is the kiss of death for blueberries.

Be sure that you add organic matter such as leaf mold or dampened peat moss to the soil if your land is lacking. Mix any organic matter well into the soil, particularly if you use peat moss. Never use more than 25% organic matter in the soil. A common cause of death is planting in a hole filled with materials such as peat moss. This will draw water away from the roots and, when wet, will stay soggy. Mixing well is the key.

Blueberries need an acidic soil to thrive. If you do not know the acidity level (pH) of your soil, have it tested at your Dept. of Agriculture or purchase a pH kit to test yourself. A pH of 4.5-5.5 is ideal for blueberries. In high pH soils the leaves will yellow, a condition known as chlorosis.

If you soil is over 5.5 add a small amount of wettable sulfur to the surface. The use of soil acidifiers such as iron sulfate (iron chelate) is acceptable as well. Use as directed. Do NOT use aluminum sulfate as this material can be toxic to the plants.

Planting

Blueberries are shallow rooted plants. When planting, place the root ball at the same depth as in the pot. If you have a bare rooted plant, place the roots just barely under the surface. Be sure to water well after transplanting and water with approximately 2-3cm (1 in.) of water per week if it does not rain. Do not keep the ground soggy.

It is advisable to use a 3cm layer of mulch such as decomposed bark on the surface. Remember that fresh materials like sawdust or new bark will use available nitrogen as they break down. If you must use fresh materials, add a dusting of blood meal to the surface. This will provide a source of nitrogen. Bone meal and compost are not advised as these raise the pH of the soil.

After Care

Blueberries need little pruning in their early years. Later you can remove crossed limbs or older stems to let new canes rejuvenate the bush. Each year a dusting of blood meal, cottonseed meal or linseed meal will provide adequate nutrients. Keep competing weeds away with annual mulching. Be sure not to cultivate deeply or the shallow roots will be damaged.

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Planting

Clematis prefer a loam soil rich in organics, which is well-drained yet moist. When planting, choose a site which will receive adequate moisture at all times, as clematis use large amounts of water. Avoid planting clematis under the roof eaves of buildings. This area is generally too dry. Dry sites are probably the number one cause of transplanting failure.

Dig the planting hole 20 cm (8 in.) deep and 30-40 cm (1 ft +) wide. Fill the hole with rich soil, hopefully with good compost worked in. Add a handful of bonemeal, as this is rich in phosphorous, which aids in early root development and a handful of blood meal for a slow release form of nitrogen for top growth. The crown of the plant should be placed several inches below the surface of the soil. These buried stems will produce their own roots and if the stem is broken or attacked by clematis wilt the buried buds will send up healthy replacement stems.

Mulch with shredded bark or other suitable material. Water the plant in well. A water soluble fertilizer or manure tea can be used at this time. If you use a granular fertilizer be sure it is not overly high in nitrogen and apply sparingly on the soil surface only. Keep your plant well watered, but not soggy, until it is established. Keep your plant weeded and maintain a light mulch covering so that the roots stay cool and moist. Clematis generally prefer a sunny location although some shade is tolerated and some varieties will have more intense color in partial shade.

Clematis grow by twining tendrils around whatever they meet. They can be grown against walls or up poles if some means of support is given such as a trellis or wires. Clematis can be used to good effect by planting so that they can grow up trees or against shrubbery. As well, they can be trained as groundcovers by using a frame of wood or wire to keep them slightly above the soil surface.

Clematis are a varied group and slightly different pruning methods are used according to the variety. For ease of understanding we have divided the varieties into 2 main groups.

Jackmannii and Viticella Group:

This group flowers during the summer on new wood only. These should be pruned 30 cm (1 ft.) from the ground in very early spring. This group includes varieties such as Bee's Jubilee, Comtesse de Bouchard, Ernest Markham, Gipsy Queen, Huldine, Jackmanii, Lady Betty Balfour and Ville de Lyon.

Patens, Languinosa and Florida Group:

This group produces larger flowers on the last year's wood in late spring, then smaller blossoms on the new wood during the summer. Prune back dead wood until green is encountered in the stem. Leave all live wood. If some thinning is necessary on older plants, prune immediately after the early blooms are done. Varieties include Duchess of Edinburgh, Elsa Spaeth (Xerxes), Henryi, Miss Bateman, Ramona (hybrida sieboldii), Silver Moon, and William Kennett.

As to how you say "clematis" - Clem' a tis or cle ma' tis -- it's up to you. Both pronunciations are accepted by the dictionary.

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Planting

Daylilies are some of the most rewarding perennials you can grow. As the name infers, each blossom only lasts a day, but daylilies bloom for many weeks and many of the modern hybrids have very long blooming periods, often several months. Early varieties start in June. Most varieties begin blooming in mid-late July and continue into fall. The daylily is now available in virtually every color but blue, and forms vary from traditional narrow petals to wide, ruffled blossoms.

Daylilies are often listed as dormant, semi-evergreen or evergreen. This refers to how quickly the foliage dies down in winter. Dormant daylilies die down to the ground early and are usually considered the hardiest varieties. Semi-evergreen types usually leave some green, and evergreen types remain green in warmer climates.

In our severe winters even semi-evergreen and evergreen types will kill down to the ground unless covered early by snow. We grow many semi-evergreen types and have not had problems overwintering them. Although we do not grow or recommend growing evergreen types in the maritimes, you may be able to grow them with a good mulch cover.

Daylilies are adaptable to many soil types, however they will thrive best when grown in a loose, loamy soil with good drainage. Adjust your soil's pH, (acidity level), to 6-7. In most maritime soils you will need to add some ground limestone to reach this pH level.

In fall, or early spring, work in compost or well rotted manure. We also add a handful of fish meal, lobster meal or blood-bone meal to provide lots of nitrogen and phosphorus. Although daylilies will survive droughty conditions, you should be sure they are adequately watered if you want the best blooms.

Daylilies can be divided in early spring or fall with relative ease. Dig the clump up and divide with a knife, or your hands if the clump is relatively young. Older, tighter clumps may require a shovel or axe to accomplish division. Water in the divisions well and mulch especially in fall.

Many of the modern hybrids have unusual patterns on the petals. Some of the characteristics you will find include:

  • Eyezones - a different colored patch in the throat of the flower
  • Watermarks - a colored area extending from the throat outward onto the petal
  • Crimping - light or heavy ruffling of the petal edges
  • Wiring - a thin line of color that runs along the petal edge
  • Diamond dusting - a reflective petal surface that sparkles

Many newer daylilies have wider petals than the traditional petal form, often creating a completely rounded flower form. The spiders have the opposite in that they have very narrow petals that often twist, creating a spidery effect.

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Pruning Guide

The art and science of pruning fruit trees has evolved over the last century and many practices that were considered 'proper' even a decade ago are now being called into question. The following guide is based on the newest research. The essence of the technique is to prune only what is required to create a balanced framework. Particularly with dwarf trees, the leader of the tree is not cut, with the possible exception of pruning back one year whips to encourage initial branching.

Dwarf trees begin bearing early and growers have found it is better to leave the leader and let the tree 'fruit itself out', meaning that once it begins fruiting, a tree's energy is concentrated into seed production and production of new growth slows, keeping the size of the tree in control. Hard pruning a young tree will tend to delay fruiting.

First Year

You can purchase either 1 year or 2 year trees. If you purchase a 1 year tree it is generally a single 'whip' with no branches, or possibly 1 or 2 small side branches. Most growers cut back a whip to approximately 125 cm (4ft) to encourage side branching to develop. Cutting to a west facing bud is generally a good idea, as the prevailing winds will encourage it to grow straighter.

If there are low branches remove them, as snow load will often strip them from the main stem. If you have purchased a 2yr branched tree, and the branches are closer than 20cm (8in) apart, you may want to reduce the branches so that there is more space between them, because branches do not move upward but only grow larger. Spacing the branches will prevent crowding later in the tree's life.

Second Year

Remove only branches that cross other branches and remove main lateral branches that are too crowded. Some growers do head back (cut the tips) of side branches to encourage more side branching where fruit spurs will eventually form.

Sucessive Years

The purpose of pruning is to give each branch an equal amount of sunlight. Prune the tree enough to open it up to sun without creating large amounts of empty and unproductive space. Each tree is unique and where and how much you prune should be guided by the general principle stated above.

By keeping the terminal intact, you will create a balanced tree that will stand up to wind, snow and fruiting loads. As the trees age, and if they get too large for the space, the terminal can be cut to a weaker side branch. Doing this annually will keep the size of the tree down, however this should not be done till after fruiting has begun.

Thinning Fruit

Removing a portion of the developing young fruit when they first begin to swell will decrease the weight on each branch and will usually increase the size of remaining fruit. It can also help to balance the yearly yield so that the next year's crop will not be too small. A heavy crop in one year often results in a light crop the following year.

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Care on Arrival

When your plants arrive open the package and check to make sure that the roots are still damp. If you are planting them immediately, place the roots in water for several hours, but no more than 12 hours. If you cannot plant them immediately, be sure to keep the roots damp and cool. If planting will be delayed for several days, place the roots temporarily in soil, damp sawdust or a similar material until you can plant them. Do not allow the roots to dry out. Be especially careful when planting that they are not allowed to sit in the sun or wind.

Planting

Prepare the ground prior to planting by removing any sod or weeds in the area where the plant is to be set. Pay particular attention to the removal of perennial weeds such as quack grass and vetch.

Good preparation at this stage will save countless hours of weeding in the future. In sandy or gravelly soils, incorporate organic matter such as a good finished compost or rotted manure to increase the water holding capacity of the soil and to furnish nutrients. A small handful of bone meal and blood meal worked into the soil you are placing around the roots is an excellent addition as well.

In heavy clay soils it is better to plant the roots using the same soil and place the compost on the surface. Never put fertilizer or fresh manure in contact with the roots. These can burn the tissues of the plant. Most plants grow best in a soil with an acidity level (ph) of 6.0-6.5. It is a good idea to have your soil tested to know your soil acidity. If you have an acidic soil (most northern soils are) incorporate lime in the soil. Without a test you cannot know how much lime to add but as a rule of thumb a cup of ground agricultural lime (not hydrated lime) worked into the soil around your new plant will be sufficient in most northern soils. There are exceptions that should be noted. Plants such as rhododendrons, azaleas, blueberries and many evergreens prefer a more acidic soil. With such plants avoid using lime.

When planting, spread the roots evenly in the hole and pack the soil carefully around the roots. Avoid creating air pockets. When you finish the plant should be at the same level it was growing at in the nursery. Be sure not to plant hardwood trees or evergreens with their bark below the soil surface or they may rot and die. It is wise to leave the soil slightly dished around the new plant so that the water will not run away from the plant. When you finish packing the soil around the roots, soak the plant with water until the soil is saturated. Do not be stingy with the water. Keep your new plant will watered the first season but avoid keeping the ground soggy. They need oxygen as well as water.

We recommend placing a layer of mulch such as damp rotted bark, rotted sawdust or leaf mold on the surface. A mulch will aid in keeping soil moisture levels high and will prevent the germination of many annual weed seeds. It will not prevent weed growth but will make the job of pulling them much easier. As it rots it also adds to the organic content of the soil.

Planting Potted Stock

When planting material that has been grown in containers, prepare the hole in a similar manner to that described above. Remove the container. Stubborn pots can often be removed by giving them a sharp hard rap on the bottom of the pot. Examine the outside of the root ball. If the roots are matted or coiled they should be teased out until they can be spread in the planting hole. If the roots are impossible to undo it is better to take a knife and make several shallow vertical cuts down the rootball. This cuts the lateral roots, forcing them to grow outward. If this is not done the roots will often never penetrate into the surrounding soil and in some cases early decline and premature death will result.

Notes Concerning Roses

The roses we grow are grown from cuttings and are on their own roots. You do not have to concern yourself about the placement of the bud union as you do in budded roses. Plant them in the same manner as any other shrub. Any suckers which appear from the base of your rose in the future will be the same variety you purchased. We recommend pruning your new rose back approximately one-third to encourage vigorous shoots. It is not necessary to prune them drastically as you do many packaged roses. In fact many prefer not to prune our roses at all when planting. Roses are briar-like plants and will sucker and spread if given cultivated ground. We recommend pruning out the oldest canes and allowing new suckers to take their place as your rose ages. New roses should require only the removal of winter-damaged canes in spring. Generally shrub roses are pruned more sparingly than hybrid teas or floribundas. If you want to cut back an older shrub rose do it in early spring before the buds expand. Rose hedges should also be pruned at this time. Be sure to keep the base of your hedge wider than the top to allow light to reach the bottom stems.

Althought winter protection is generally not necessary with these hardy roses, if you are trying to grow a variety that is tender in your area you can protect it in winter with either an overwintering blanket or by mounding the base with a mulch such as bark chips.

Remember that good flower production demands adequate moisture at all times, good drainage, good fertility and high light levels. If these conditions are met, and weeds kept under control, you should enjoy many beautiful blooms.

Prunning Newly Planted Fruit Trees

When you receive your fruit tree it will be either a one year tree with no or very few branches or a two year tree that is branched. One year trees generally require little in the way of pruning. You may want to prune off the terminal if it appears soft or withered, otherwise it can be left. Some people remove unwanted buds on the stem by rubbing them off sideways and leave buds only where they want branches. Generally these buds should be spaced in different directions approximately six inches apart. Two year trees should have any branches removed below 18 inches and existing branches spaced so that they are 6-8 inches apart in different directions. If the terminal is soft or damaged, prune back to a good bud, preferably facing the westerly wind, which will help straighten the new shoot. Your purpose in training young trees should be to form a balanced framework and to remove weak narrow-crotched branches or diseased wood. It is better to prune hard the first year and prune only as necessary in later years. Heavy pruning will delay fruiting, however lack of pruning may result in overcrowded branches that allow little light into the center of the tree.

1. A sharp knife and steady hands

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2. A diagonal cut is made on the rootstock and a matching cut on the scion wood

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3. Then a small back cut on each surface to help hold the pieces together

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4. If done properly the scion slides onto the rootstock and the edges match

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5. The joint is wrapped with parafilm, the scion cut an inch or so above the joint and dipped in a wax mixture

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6. The waxed grafted stock is kept cool and moistwhile waiting to be planted

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Fertilization

The secret to sustainable healthy growth in plants is the creation of a vibrant, living soil with a diversity of soil life. The cycle of life and death in the soil provides nutrients in the form of salts from wastes excreted by the animals and from the decomposition of plants and animals. To create such soils, you need to provide organic matter and the vital elements used by the organisms that break down that organic matter.

Organic Matter

Organic material is like money in the bank. It is digested by bacteria and other soil life. This process releases the nutrients contained in the cells into the soil. The more woody the material, the more slowly this will occur. Materials such as sawdust and wood chips have high carbon content and will break down slowly unless extra nitrogen is added.

Nitrogen is not more important than other nutrients, but is the nutrient that is usually the least abundant in soil. Softer materials that are low in carbon such as grass clippings and green vegetation will break down very fast. Perhaps the most useful organic additive is compost.

Compost is usually made of organic waste mixed with a high nitrogen source such as fresh manure. If turned regularly to introduce oxygen and kept moist, the materials break down quickly and the compost will not smell. Once the process of decomposition slows, the compost is ready to use. This stable material contains virtually all the nutrients needed for growth.

The use of mulches on the surface such as rotted bark can provide organic matter. Layer new mulch every 1-2 years. Do not mix it deeply in the soil. This will cause a temporary depletion of nitrogen. Three to four inches (up to 10cm) of mulch is sufficient.

Soil pH (Soil Acidity Level)

The soil acidity is one of the most important factors influencing plant growth. The acidity level of soil is measured on a scale of 0 (most acidic) to 14 (most alkaline). Most garden plants grow best in the 6- 7 range (neutral). Most Maritime soils are acidic (pH 4-5.5).

You can have your soil tested to find out its pH. As a rule of thumb, acidic soils can be adjusted by covering the surface with enough agricultural lime to make the surface white, but with no thickness. Give a light dusting every 4-5 years to keep the level, as rain will eventually dissolve the lime. There are plants such as rhododendron, azalea and blueberry that require an acidic soil. Do not lime the soil around these plants.

Nitrogen-The Key Element

Nitrogen, a key component of proteins, is in the air around us but plants cannot absorb it directly from the air. The addition of nitrogen fertilizers will act as a catalyst to stimulate soil life. Nitrogen salts found in commercial fertilizers can burn plants if used in high concentrations and usually only a small portion is used by the plants.

Most of it washes to the lower levels of the soil where it enters the water table and can negatively affect ponds and streams. We suggest using organic sources that are eaten by soil life and stay in the root zone area where they are recycled. Organic sources include blood meal, fish meal, linseed meal, alfalfa meal and soy meal. Feed the soil and you will feed your plant.

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Growing Hardy Kiwi

The argutas are somewhat larger than the kolomiktas and have more vigour. The kolomiktas are hardier than the argutas with similar but slightly smaller fruit.

Hardy Kiwis have a flavour similar to the brown, fuzzy types found in the stores but are somewhat sweeter, hairless and the size of a large grape. They grow on a vigorous vine and can be trained on a trellis or on posts and wire. You must have a male for pollination. You can have up to 9 females for each male. Plant the male close to the females and keep it upwind to maximize pollination. (Choose male plants to pollinate females of the same species. Female and Male Kiwi flowers

Argutas begin producing in 6 years, Kolomiktas in 2 years. Kiwis need a rich and well-drained soil to prosper. Kiwis will not do well in sites that receive later spring frosts as the leaves are frost tender. It is important to provide adequate water after transplanting and during drought periods. Keep roots cool and moist.

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Making Compost

The process of making compost is very simple, but attention to all the details makes the difference between a true finished compost and a pile of partly decomposed material. The essence of composting is the breakdown of organic materials into a form that is stable and in which the essential nutrients are available to plants.

The process begins with an understanding of the nature of the organic materials you are using. A balance must be struck between the amount of carbon in the raw materials and the amount of nitrogen available to the bacteria that break down the carbon.

The more woody the material, the higher the percentage of carbon. Examples of high carbon materials include wood fibre such as sawdust or shredded branches and twigs. Materials with moderate carbon content include things like fall leaves, garden refuse and straw. Examples of low carbon materials include kitchen garbage, grass clippings and green leafy plants.

The low carbon materials will break down quickly with virtually no need for the addition of high nitrogen materials. The more woody the material the more nitrogen you must add to produce a quick breakdown of the materials.

There are many sources of nitrogen rich, (protein rich), material. Some of the best are fresh manure of any kind, animal wastes such as bloodmeal and fishmeal, and high protein foods used for animals such as soymeal, linseed meal, alfalfa meal and cotton seed meal.

When you build your pile, mix these materials with your organic material, keeping in mind that the woodier it is the more nitrogen rich materials you need. Water enough to make the material moist but not soggy. Piles need to be at least 1 - 1.3m, (3 -4 ft), high in order to keep the heat that is produced inside the pile. Smaller piles will cool too quickly and will not produce the high heat needed to kill weed seeds and pathogens.

The sides of the pile should be exposed to the air, (oxygen). The addition of small amounts of lime into the soil can be beneficial to gardens that have acidic soils that you wish to sweeten, however do not use large quantities and realize that even without added lime compost is alklaline in nature with a pH of 8.0 or so being common for the finished compost.

Once your pile is built it needs to be turned frequently in order to introduce oxygen into the centre of the pile. As the process of decay commences you will feel the heat in the pile. A good pile reaches a temperature high enough that you should not be able to hold your hand in the pile, (160 F). If you are not feeling the heat you need to add more nitrogen. Turning frequently will keep the process aerobic, (oxygen using bacteria). Without oxygen the process turns anerobic and a strong ammonia-like smell will result.

Your pile will reduce substantially in size as the bacteria consume the carbon and release it as carbon dioxide. A good portion of your pile literally turns to air. Once the heat subsides and the texture is fine and a deep brown color with no appreciable odor, your compost is finished and can be used in your gardens.

Usually a small layer of compost worked into the surface of the garden or added to planting soil is sufficient. As a rule of thumb, do not use more then 25% by volume, as the salts in compost may be detrimental. Likewise mediums for growing seedlings and such should not contain more the 25% compost, or the salts may injure the delicate tissues.

As in the rest of life, everything in moderation.

1. New growth is carefully selected andcuttings taken for propagation.

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2. Rose cuttings are brought to the barn, kept cool and moist while being processed.

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3. The cuttings are processed here.

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4. The lower leaves are removed first.

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5. The stems dipped into a rooting hormone to promote growth.

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6. The stems are then stuck into a growing medium.

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7. Trays of cuttings are placed in the greenhouse with high humidity and bottom heat while they root. The new greenhouse has a heated cement floor and plants are stuck directly into the growing medium.

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8. Rooted cuttings are pulled to be planted.

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9. During the growing season the green houses are prepared for replanting as soon as they are available.

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10. The fields are prepared and the rooted cuttings planted in beds.

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11. The planted cuttings are kept moist with irrigation, (sprinklers on the right).

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Pruning

Grapes are vines are generally trained in cultivation to allow better access to the fruits and to allow more sun to penetrate the plant. We prefer to prune the grapes in November, once the leaves have fallen. You can see the vines and they do not bleed as they do in spring.

Grapes naturally grow into trees and shrubs in order to reach the sun.  Their purpose is to produce seed.  Over the centuries people have chosen particular seedlings of several grape species that produce grapes that are larger, sweeter or that have superior properties for making wine.  

In order to increase the size and sugar content of grapes vigorous pruning of the plants is practiced.  Often a good portion of the plant is removed each year.

In order to prevent sap bleed we find fall is the best time to prune.  November is ideal as the wood has hardened off and become dormant.  Also, the leaves are gone, making the decision of where to prune easier. Spring pruning can be done as well, but the plants will bleed sap for several weeks, which can attract insects and fungi.

Many types of systems for training and pruning grapes have developed over time.  Most systems involve the use of posts and wires to expose the vines to the most sun and to secure the vines.

Though the systems may vary, the principle of pruning is to renew the plant each year by removing the canes that bore fruit the previous season and to use some of the new canes that have recently grown to provide fruit for the coming year.  

When the old canes are removed a portion at the base of the cane, having one or two buds, is left to provide new canes for the following year.  These remainders are referred to as renewal spurs.

Below are diagrams of some of the most popular forms of training systems.  The growth habit of the particular grape (the cultivar) often influences the choice of system.  For example the low cordon system is better suited to upright growing cultivars, whereas more prostrate cultivars are better suited to a high cordon system.

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Growing Raspberries

Raspberries will grow in a variety of soil conditions but prefer a well-drained moist and reasonably light soil. We recommend planting approximately 18 in. apart. Rows should be approximately 4 ft. apart. Feed with compost or rotted manure in the late fall or early spring. Mulching with shredded bark or sawdust is advantageous but be sure nitrogen levels are kept high enough for good growth.

Raspberries grow best in slightly acid soils (pH of 5.7-6.0). Plants produce berries on 2 yr canes. After bearing, these older canes should be cut out and 1 yr canes should be thinned out enough that each will receive adequate light, water and nutrients. We believe the varieties we carry are the best suited to growing conditions in the Maritimes provinces and similar colder areas of the country. All our canes are from virus tested stock.

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Planting and Pruning Instructions

The roses we grow are grown from cuttings and are on their own roots. You do not have to concern yourself about the placement of the bud union as you do in budded roses. Plant them in the same manner as any other shrub. Any suckers which appear from the base of your rose in the future will be the same variety you purchased.

We recommend pruning your new rose back approximately one-third to encourage vigorous shoots. It is not necessary to prune them drastically as you do many packaged roses. In fact many prefer not to prune our roses at all when planting. Roses are briar-like plants and will sucker and spread if given cultivated ground.

We recommend pruning out the oldest canes and allowing new suckers to take their place as your rose ages. New roses should require only the removal of winter-damaged canes in spring. Generally shrub roses are pruned more sparingly than hybrid teas or floribundas.

If you want to cut back an older shrub rose do it in early spring before the buds expand. Rose hedges should also be pruned at this time. Be sure to keep the base of your hedge wider than the top to allow light to reach the bottom stems.

Although winter protection is generally not necessary with these hardy roses, if you are trying to grow a variety that is tender in your area you can protect it in winter with either an overwintering blanket or by mounding the base with a mulch such as bark chips.

Remember that good flower production demands adequate moisture at all times, good drainage, good fertility and high light levels. If these conditions are met, and weeds kept under control, you should enjoy many beautiful blooms.

Plant Lists

Birds

Birds are attracted to many different species of plants. We have compiled a list of just a few that we sell that the birds can't seem to get enough of. Roses with hips, elderberry, native grape, serviceberry, deciduous holly, honeysuckle, wild raisin, flowering crabapple, pagoda dogwood, sumac and most grasses.

Butterflies

Butterflies are also attracted to many different species of plant. Below is our selection of the best plant to buy to ensure your garden beds are butterfly friendly. Beauty Bush, Honeysuckle, Golden Currant, Lilacs, Weigela, Honeysuckle vine, Butterfly Weed, Jo Pye Weed, Beebalm, and Sedum's .

Deer Resistant Plants

This is only a partial list and is not a guarantee that deer will not eat these plants. Deer, if hungry, will eat many plants and we are finding that they are learning to eat plants they would have ignored in the past. This list can act as a guide toward plants that are least likely to suffer deer damage.

Trees

Maples (seldom), Honey Locust, Ash, Hawthorn, Birch, Oak, Blue Spruce, Hemlock, Mugo Pine, Bristlecone Pine, Serviceberry (seldom), Cork Screw Willow (seldom), Spruce, White Pine (seldom), Star Magnolia (seldom), Katsura, Kousa Dogwood (seldom), Ginkgo, Stewartia (seldom).

Shrubs

Witch Hazel (seldom), Barberry, Lilac, Spirea, Juniper, Red Osier Dogwood, Currant, Gooseberry, Elderberry, Potentilla, Forsythia (seldom), Privet(seldom), Mockorange, Sea Buckthorn(seldom), Smokebush(seldom), Viburnum, PJM Rhododendron(seldom), Microbiota, Rugosa Roses(seldom), Daphne, Deciduous.

Vines

Clematis, Honeysuckle, Bittersweet, Grape (seldom).

Perennials

Ajuga, Columbine, Astilbe, Coreopsis, Bee Balm, Rudbeckia, Bleeding Heart, Campanula, Catmint, Purple Coneflower, Gayfeather, Joe Pye Weed, Geranium, Dianthus, Hellebore, Bugbane, Heleopsis, Candytuft, Iris, Anemone, Lavender, Lupine

Fragrant Plants

We made a list of fragrant plants to help add some wonderfull aromas to your garden. Many roses, swee fern, bayberry, mockorange, golden currant, lilac, apple, flowering crabapple, pear, magnolia, black locist, basswood, linden, goldflame honeysuckle, azalea, lily of the valley, some daylilies, some hostas, tall bearded iris, beebalm (foliage), some peony, tall phlox, thyme (foliage)

Low evergreen

Broadmoor Juniper, Buffalo Juniper, Calgary Carpet Juniper, Russian Cypress.

Medium evergreen

Blue Danube Juniper, Table Top Spruce, Nest Spruce.

Low shrub

Sweet Fern, Bassino rose, Doorenbos rose, Max Graf rose, Repens rosa alba rose, Magic Carpet spirea, Halward Silver spirea, Minuet weigela, Tango weigelia.

Medium shrub

New Hampshire Gold Forsythia, Potentilla, Fru Dagmar Hastrup rose, Rosa rugosa (in variety), Gold flame spirea.

Perennials

Low: Low-Ajuga, Lady Mantle, Rock cress, Snow in Summer, Lily of the Valley, Geranium macchorizum, Geranium Wargrave Pink, Lamium, Creeping Jenny, Creeping Phlox, Sedum, Thyme, Ribbon Grass. Medium:

Moisture Tolerant Plants

Most plants we grow in our gardens need good drainage. Lack of oxygen in the soil can cause disease problems as root cells die, or in the worst case, death of the plant due to suffocation of the root system. There are some plants that can tolerate damp conditions.

Plants That Tolerate Seasonal Dampness

These plants will take spring moisture as long as the site drains afterward. Elderberry, Currant, Dogwood, White ash, Green ash, Butternut, Bur oak, Basswood, Balsam Fir, Aster, Astilbe, Siberian Iris, Bloodroot, Primula, Trollius.

Plants That Tolerate Seasonal Dampness

These plants are the most tolerant of wet soils. The amount of water they will tolerate varies somewhat. Those with an asterisk * are the most tolerant. Poplar, Native Red Maple, Highbush Cranberry, Cedar, Joe Pye Weed, Beebalm, Lady Fern, Willow*, Bog Rosemary*, Deciduous Holly*, Larch*, Black Spruce*, Japenese Iris*, Ligularia*, Ostrich Fern*, Sensitive Fern*, Sedge*, Rush (Juncus)*

Native Plant Material

Roses: Carolina, Virginiana

Fruits

Elderberry, Native Grape, Serviceberry

Shrubs

Sweet Fern, Red Osier Dogwood, Witch Hazel, Deciduous Holly, Bayberry, Wild Raisin, Highbush Cranberry

Deciduous Trees

Red maple, Striped Maple, Sugar Maple, Mountain Maple, Yellow Birch, Paper Burch, Pagoda Dogwood, White Ash, Green Ash, Butternut, Bur Oak, Red Oak, Staghorn Sumac, Basswood.

Evergreens

Larch, White Spruce, Black Spruce, Red Spruce, Jack Pine, White Cedar/Arborvitae, Thuja Occidentalis, Hemlock

Vines

Virgin's Bower Clematis

Perennials

Columbine, Aster, Solomon's Seal, Bloodroot

Grasses

Sedge, Rush, Spartina

Ferns

Maidenhair Fern, Lady Fern, Oak Fern, Ostrich Fern, Sensitive Fern

Perennials By Season

This list will allow you to choose perennials for each season so that your garden can look colorful from early spring to freezeup. *long blooming ** very long blooming

Early Spring

Cushion Spurge, William & Mary, Pasque Flower, Bloot Root

Spring

Bugleweed, Lady Mantle, Columbine, Windflower, Rockcress, Bergenia, Lily of the Valley, Bleeding Heart, Candytuft, Dwarf Iris, Dead Nettle, Creeping Phlox, Jacob Ladder, Solomon Seal, Chiniese Rhubarb

Late Spring

Alkanet, Tall Bearder Iris, Siberian Iris, Variegated Iris, Creeping Jenny, Peony, Salvia

Early Summer

Yarrow, Goatsbeard Blue Chips, Snow in Summer, Geranium, Japanese Iris, Beebalm, Beardtongue, Obedient Plant, Spiderwort

Summer

Delphinium, Meadow Sweet, Daylilies, Leopard Plant, Lilies, Rodgersia, Thyme.

Late Summer

Monkshood, Butterfly Weed, Tickseed, Giant Baby Breath, Gas Plant, Coneflower, Sea Holly, Joe Pye Weed, Hostas, Russian Sage, Tall Phlox, Black Eyed Susan, Toad Lily, Veronica.

Fall

Bugbane, Aster, Chrysanthemum, Barrenwort, Wax Bells, Sedum

Salt Tolerant Plants

Rosa Rugosa (most roses are salt tolerant), Rhubarb, Blueberry, Serviceberry, Sweet Fern, Forsythia, Bayberry, Potentilla, Lilacs, Apple, Flowering Crabapple, Royal Red Maple, Black Locust White Spruce, Black Spruce, Red Spruce, Colorado Spruce, Jack Pine, Mugo Pine.

Decicuous Trees

Striped Maple, Mountain Maple, Alder, Redbud, Alternate Dogwood, Honeylocust, Magnolia, Hophornbeam.

Shrubs

Serviceberry, Bog Rosemary, Chokeberry, Barberry, Summersweet, Dogwood, Daphne, Butterflybush, Burning Bush, Forsythia, Hamamelis, Hydrangea, Deciduous Holly, Mountain Laurel, Beautybush, Honeysuckle, Mockorgange, Ninebark, Rhododendron, Rosa Rubrifolia, Willow, Elderberry, False Spirea, Spirea, Snowberry, Blueberry, Viburnum, Weigela

Conifers

Dwarf Japanese garden juniper, Yew, Hemlock

Perennials

Monkshood, Baneberry, Goutweed, Bugleweed, Lady's Mantle, Leek, Windflower, Columbine, Bearberry, Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Silvermound, Ginger, Spleenwort, Aster, Astilbe, Bergenia, Turtlehead, Snakeroot, Lily of the Valley, Bunchberry, Corydalis, Bleeding Heart, Foxglove, Shooting Star, Leapard's Bane, Sea Holly, Barrenwort, Joe-Pye Weed, Ferns, Meadowsweet, Geranium, Blue Oat Grass, Hellebore, Daylilies, Corabells, Hostat, Iris, Deadnettle, Lilies, Maltese Cross, Creeping Jenny, Plume Poppy, Mint, Virginia Bluebells, Pachyandra, Peonies, Cliffgreen, Ribbon Grass, Ground Phlox, Obedient Plant, Jacob's Ladder, Solomon's Seal, Foamflower, Spiderwort, Trillium, English Buttercup, Milkweed, Speedwell, Vinca, Violets.

Vines

Kiwi, Dutchmand Pipe, Bittersweet, Clematis, Wintercreeper, English Ivy, Climbing, Climbing Honeysuckle, Virginia Creeper, Silverlace Vine